Indus, the Lion River
Archives - Bridge on Indus
If there was no Indus river, there would not have no people living in this part of the world.
Originating from the glacial Tibetan mountains, the Indus gushes in to Pakistan with all its might and fright from the northern areas. Near Attock, the River Kabul also joins this
ferocious river and one can
vividly see the blue Kabul River merging with the muddy Indus while standing on the bridge over Indus at Attock. Both join hands together and irrigate the entire length of Pakistan, approximately 2,900 km (1,800 mi), till it steadily calms down and fades away in the Arabia Sea.
Cities that Indus Passes By: The Indus skirts and
passes by the famous Attock, Bannu, Faisalabad, Multan, Khairpur, Sukkur, Larkana, Nawabshah, Mirpurkhas,
Hyderabad and finally embracing the Arabian Sea near the port city
of Karachi (above).
The Indus Delta The Indus Delta is the fifth largest delta
in the world, characterized by high river discharge, moderate tides, and
evidently the highest wave energy of any river in the
world. The fan-shaped delta consists of creeks, estuaries, mud,
sand, salt flats, mangrove habitat, marshes, sea bays, and straits and rocky
shores. Its 129,000 ha. of mangrove, mostly Avicenna marina, comprises 97%
of the total mangrove area in the country and is said to be the
7th largest mangrove forest in the world.
The area is rich in archaeological and religious heritage.
The Indus Delta
The Indus Delta is the fifth largest delta in the world, characterized by high river discharge, moderate tides, and evidently the highest wave energy of any river in the world. The fan-shaped delta consists of creeks, estuaries, mud, sand, salt flats, mangrove habitat, marshes, sea bays, and straits and rocky shores. Its 129,000 ha. of mangrove, mostly Avicenna marina, comprises 97% of the total mangrove area in the country and is said to be the 7th largest mangrove forest in the world. The area is rich in archaeological and religious heritage.
The Indus River "Blind" Dolphin
The Indus River harbours the rare species of nearly blind dolphin. The dolphin lacks eye lenses and the eye openings are no bigger than a pinhole. As a result, these rely almost entirely on echolocation to forage for food and navigate in the murky river waters.
The Indus Dolphin is a "Living Fossil" that has not shared a common ancestor with any other living creature for around 25 million years ago. Read more...
River Jhelum (Urdu: جہلم): Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. It is a tributary of the Indus River. The valley of the Jhelum River, which includes the Vale of Kashmir, in the central portion; the mountains around Jammu in the south; and the great mountains of the Karakoram Range in the north. The Jhelum River rises in the north-eastern portion of the territory. It enters Pakistan near the Jhelum city and traverses down south to meet the Chenab River. The river was regarded as a god by the ancient Greeks, as were most mountains and streams; the poet Nonnus in the Dionysiaca (section 26, line 350) makes the Hydaspes a titan-descended god, the son of the sea-god Thaumas and the cloud-goddess Elektra. He was the brother of Iris the goddess of the rainbow, and half-brother to the harpies, the snatching winds. Since the river is in a country foreign to the ancient Greeks, it is not clear whether they named the river after the god, or whether the god Hydaspes was named after the river. Alexander the Great and his army crossed the Jhelum in 326 BC at the Battle of the Hydaspes where he defeated the Indian king, Porus. According to Arrian (Anabasis, 29), he built a city "on the spot whence he started to cross the river Hydaspes", which he named Bukephala (or Bucephala) to honour his famous horse Bukephalis which was buried in Jalalpur Sharif. It is thought that ancient Bukephala was near the site of modern Jhelum City. According to a historian of Gujrat district,Mansoor Behzad Butt, Bukephala was buried in Jalalpur Sharif, but the people of Mandi Bahauddin, a district close to Jehlum, believed that their tehsil Phalia was named after Bucephala, Alexander`s dead horse. They say that the name Phalia was the distortion of the word Bucephala.
The waters of the Jhelum are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty. The Mangla Dam in Pakistan, the twelfth largest dam in the world, was built in 1967 on Jhelum River as part of the Indus Basin Water Treaty.
River Chenab: 960 km long Chenab River (Urdu: چناب') originates from the Himalayas in Himachal Pradesh State, India. Through the area of Jammu and Kashmir controlled by India, it takes a generally south-western direction through Punjab Province of Pakistan, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves (Doabs in Persian). It is joined by the Jhelum River at Trimmu, and then by the Ravi River. It then merges with the Sutlej River near Uch Sharif to form the Panjnad ('Five Rivers'), which joins the Indus at Mithankot. The total length of the Chenab is approximately 960 kilometres. The waters of the Chenab are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty. Generally the most healthy river of Pakistan after Indus, it joins the generally dry Sutlej River and thence it joins Jhelum before falling in to the Indus.
The river was known to Indians in Vedic period as Ashkini or Iskmati and as Acesines to the Ancient Greeks. In 325 BC, Alexander the Great allegedly founded the town of Alexandria on the Indus (present day Uch Sharif or Mithankot or Chacharan) at the confluence of the Indus and the combined stream of Punjab rivers (currently known as the Panjnad River). The Chenab has the same place in the consciousness of the people of the Punjab, as, say the Rhine holds for the Germans, or the Danube for the Austrians and the Hungarians. It is the iconic river around which Punjabi consciousness revolves, and plays a prominent part in the tale of Heer Ranjha, the Punjabi national epic.
Boat bridge on Ravi near Lahore (1895)
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